The concept of "software engineering" was first proposed in 1968 at a conference held to discuss what was then called a "software crisis" (Naur and Randell, 1969). It became clear that individual approaches to program development did not extend to large and complex systems. These were unreliable, priced higher than expected, and delivered late.
Since the 1970s and 1980s, many new software engineering methods and techniques were developed, such as structured programming, information hiding, and object-oriented development. Standard tools and symbols have been developed and are now widely used.
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